Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist. 2022 Aug 5;20:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpddr.2022.07.002. Online ahead of print.


Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) is a protozoal parasite that can cause severe cecal lesions and death in chickens, seriously harming the chicken industry. Conventional control strategies mainly rely on anticoccidial drugs. However, the emerging problems of anticoccidial resistance and drug residues necessitate exploring potential drug targets for developing new anticoccidial drugs. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD) is an essential enzyme for parasite energy metabolism that has been considered a potential drug target. In this study, we analyzed the molecular and biochemical properties of E. tenella ALD2 (EtALD2). EtALD2 mRNA expression was highest in second-generation merozoites, whereas the protein level was highest in unsporulated oocysts. Indirect immunofluorescence showed that EtALD2 was mainly distributed in sporozoite' cytoplasm. The natural product inhibitor (morin) was screened by computer-aided drug screening. Enzyme kinetic and inhibition kinetic assays showed that morin had a good inhibitory effect on EtALD2 activity (IC50 = 10.37 μM, Ki = 48.97 μM). In vitro inhibition assay demonstrated that morin had an inhibitory effect on E. tenella development, with an IC50 value of 3.98 μM and drug selection index of 177.49. In vivo, morin significantly improved cecal lesions (p < 0.05) and reduced oocyst excretion (p < 0.05) in E. tenella-infected chickens compared with the untreated group. The anticoccidial index of the group receiving 450 mg morin per kg feed was 162, showing a good anticoccidial effect. These findings suggest that EtALD2 could be a novel drug target for E. tenella treatment, and morin should be further evaluated as a therapeutic candidate for chicken coccidiosis.

PMID:35952522 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijpddr.2022.07.002

Front Microbiol. 2022 Jul 19;13:862205. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.862205. eCollection 2022.


Human infection with highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus causes severe respiratory diseases. Currently, the drugs against H5N1 are limited to virus-targeted inhibitors. However, drug resistance caused by these inhibitors is becoming a serious threat to global public health. An alternative strategy to reduce the resistance risk is to develop antiviral drugs targeting host cell proteins. In this study, we demonstrated that cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 1 (COX41) of host cell plays an important role in H5N1 infection. Overexpression of COX41 promoted viral replication, which was inhibited by silencing or knockout the expression of COX41 in the host cell. The ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) of H5N1 were retained in the cell nucleus after knockout cellular COX41. Strikingly, inhibition of cellular COX41 by lycorine, a small-molecule compound isolated from Amaryllidaceae plants, reduced the levels of COX41-induced ROS and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in cells, thus resulting in the blockage of nuclear export of vRNP and inhibition of viral replication. In H5N1-infected mice that were treated with lycorine, we observed a reduction of viral titers and inhibition of pathological changes in the lung and trachea tissues. Importantly, no resistant virus was generated after culturing the virus with the continuous treatment of lycorine. Collectively, these findings suggest that COX41 is a positive regulator of H5N1 replication and might serve as an alternative target for anti-influenza drug development.

PMID:35928150 | PMC:PMC9343726 | DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2022.862205

Virology. 2022 Jul 20;574:47-56. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2022.07.002. Online ahead of print.


For influenza A viruses (IAVs), non-structural protein 1 (NS1) protein was recognized to be the key factor to enhance virulence by antagonizing host innate anti-viral responses. However, for the pathways allowing NS1 to regulate the type I interferon (IFN) response, the identification of the substrates was still incomplete. Here a recombinant IAV encoding a NS1 containing an affinity tag (NS1-Strep) was generated to capture the NS1-interactome in the lungs of infected mice. Several scaffold proteins of the 14-3-3 family were distinguished as the most potent candidates. Based on the conserved motif RxxTxxT of NS1, the interaction between NS1 and 14-3-3ε was enabled, which competed for the binding of RIG-I to 14-3-3ε and prevented RIG-I translocation to the adaptor MAVS, consequently inhibiting IFN-β expression. A recombinant mutant IAV deficient in 14-3-3ε binding elicited a markable innate immune responses and showed impaired growth kinetics.

PMID:35926243 | DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2022.07.002

Front Vet Sci. 2022 Jul 14;9:939456. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2022.939456. eCollection 2022.


Outbreaks of influenza D virus (IDV) continue to be reported in many countries. On the basis of the hemagglutinin-esterase fusion (HEF) gene, five IDV genetic lineages have been identified: D/OK, D/660, D/Yama2016, D/Yama2019 and D/CA2019 lineages. Previously reported IDV strains in China all form a sub-clade (D/China sub-lineage) within D/OK lineage. From October 2021 to February 2022, nasal swab samples (n = 250) were collected from apparently healthy cattle in slaughterhouses around the city of Guangzhou, China, and screened for IDV by RT-PCR. Ten samples were positive for IDV. An IDV strain with nearly complete genome sequences was identified and designated as D/bovine/CHN/JY3001/2021. Importantly, sequence alignments and phylogenetic analyses revealed that this IDV strain is genetically close to the strains (>98% homology) in the D/Yama2019 lineage that has been found only in Japan, but distant from the previously reported Chinese IDV strains (~95% similarity). These results demonstrate the emergence of D/Yama2019 lineage IDV in Chinese cattle herds, highlighting a need for future surveillance of D/Yama2019-like viruses toward better understanding both epidemiology and diversity of IDV in China.

PMID:35909676 | PMC:PMC9330358 | DOI:10.3389/fvets.2022.939456

Virus Evol. 2022 Jun 21;8(1):veac049. doi: 10.1093/ve/veac049. eCollection 2022.


Coronavirus infections cause diseases that range from mild to severe in mammals and birds. In this study, we detected coronavirus infections in 748 farmed wild animals of 23 species in Guangdong, southern China, by RT-PCR and metagenomic analysis. We identified four coronaviruses in these wild animals and analysed their evolutionary origins. Coronaviruses detected in Rhizomys sinensis were genetically grouped into canine and rodent coronaviruses, which were likely recombinants of canine and rodent coronaviruses. The coronavirus found in Phasianus colchicus was a recombinant pheasant coronavirus of turkey coronavirus and infectious bronchitis virus. The coronavirus in Paguma larvata had a high nucleotide identity (94.6-98.5 per cent) with a coronavirus of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates). These findings suggested that the wildlife coronaviruses may have experienced homologous recombination and/or crossed the species barrier, likely resulting in the emergence of new coronaviruses. It is necessary to reduce human-animal interactions by prohibiting the eating and raising of wild animals, which may contribute to preventing the emergence of the next coronavirus pandemic.

PMID:35795295 | PMC:PMC9252129 | DOI:10.1093/ve/veac049

Acta Parasitol. 2022 Jun 30. doi: 10.1007/s11686-022-00582-w. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: Canine hookworm disease is a global zoonotic parasitic disease caused by a variety of nematodes in families Ancylostomatidae, including Ancylostoma spp., Necator spp., and Uncinaria spp., in the small intestine (mainly the duodenum) of dogs. The disease is widely distributed in China. The purpose of this study is to systematically diagnose and treat canine hookworm disease through the case of miniaturization Schnauzer dog feed infected with A. ceylanicum, so as to provide experimental basis for subsequent prevention and control of canine hookworm disease.

METHODS: In the current study, we isolated hookworm eggs from a diseased miniature schnauzer, then the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 gene sequence from genomic DNA extracted from hookworms. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 gene sequence sequences was inferred using MEGA-X. After phylogenetic analysis, etiologic and symptomatic therapies were used to treat the canine hookworm disease.

RESULTS: The sequencing results showed that the length of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 gene sequence was approximately 960 bp, and ITS1 and ITS2 were extracted to analyze similarity with other hookworms to build a phylogenetic tree. After phylogenetic analysis, the results showed that the diseased miniature schnauzer was infected by A. ceylanicum. Using etiologic and symptomatic therapies, the sick dog with an A. ceylanicum infection was also treated for 5 days.

CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of diagnosis and treatment for canine hookworm disease in Guangzhou city. In addition, with the improvement of economic level, the scale of pet dog breeding is also increasing. The diagnostic methods and treatment schemes adopted in this report will help to standardize the prevention and control of canine hookworm disease.

PMID:35773568 | DOI:10.1007/s11686-022-00582-w

Parasit Vectors. 2022 Jun 6;15(1):188. doi: 10.1186/s13071-022-05267-x.


BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is one of the most prevalent parasites infecting both birds and mammals. To examine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and evaluate the public health significance of domestic chickens in Guangdong Province, southern China, we analyzed 1001 fecal samples from 43 intensive broiler chicken farms across six distinct geographical regions.

METHODS: Individual DNA samples were subjected to nested PCR-based amplification and sequencing of the small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). Analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene (gp60) was performed to characterize the subtypes of C. meleagridis.

RESULTS: The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 13.2% (95% CI 11.1-15.3) (24 of 43 farms), with C. meleagridis (7.8%), C. baileyi (4.8%) and mixed infections (0.6%). Using the gp60 gene, three subtype families, IIIb, IIIe and IIIg, were identified, including six subtypes: one novel (IIIgA25G3R1a) and five previously reported (IIIbA23G1R1c, IIIbA24G1R1, IIIbA21G1R1a, IIIeA17G2R1 and IIIeA26G2R1). Within these subtypes, five known subtypes were genetically identical to those identified in humans.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of C. meleagridis in chickens from Guangdong. The frequent occurrence of C. meleagridis in domestic chickens and the common C. meleagridis subtypes identified in both humans and chickens is of public health significance. Our study indicates that broiler chickens represent a potential zoonotic risk for the transmission of Cryptosporidium in this region.

PMID:35668467 | PMC:PMC9169408 | DOI:10.1186/s13071-022-05267-x

J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2022 Jul;75(7):396-402. doi: 10.1038/s41429-022-00532-8. Epub 2022 May 26.


According to recent studies, the importance of MLS (macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin) resistance phenotypes and genes in enterococci are reflected in the fact that they represent reservoirs of MLS resistance genes. The aim of this study was to investigate distribution of MLS resistance genes and phenotypes in community- and hospital-acquired enterococcal isolates and to determine their prevalence. The MLS resistance phenotypes (cMLSb, iMLSb, M/MSb, and L/LSa) were determined in 245 enterococcal isolates were characterized using the double-disc diffusion method. Specific primers were chosen from database sequences for detection of the MLS resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA/B, lnuA, lnuB, and lsaA) in 60 isolates of enterococci by end-point PCR. There was no linezolid-resistant enterococcal isolate. Only one vancomycin-resistant (0.6%) isolate was found and it occurred in a community-acquired enterococcal isolate. The most frequent MLS resistance phenotype among enterococcal isolates was cMLSb (79.7% community- and 67.9% hospital-acquired). The most common identified MLS resistance genes among enterococcal isolates were lsaA (52.9% community- and 33.3% hospital-acquired) and ermB (17.6% community- and 33.3% hospital-acquired). The most prevalent MLS gene combination was lnuA + lsaA (five enterococcal isolates). The ermB gene encoded cMLSb phenotype, and it was identified in only one isolate that displayed iMLSb resistance phenotype. Based on the results obtained, we can conclude that the most frequent MLS resistance phenotype among enterococcal isolates was cMLSb. Surprisingly, a vancomycin-resistant enterococcal isolate was identified in a community-acquired enterococcal isolate. This study shows that enterococci may represent a major reservoir of ermB, lsaA, and lnuA genes.

PMID:35618783 | DOI:10.1038/s41429-022-00532-8

Front Microbiol. 2022 Apr 25;13:811428. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.811428. eCollection 2022.


Avian coccidiosis is an important intestinal protozoan disease that has caused major economic losses to the poultry industry. Clostridium butyricum can not only maintain the stability of the intestinal barrier, but can also improve the production performance of broiler chickens. We studied the effects of feeding C. butyricum alone, administration of coccidiosis vaccine alone, and the combined administration of C. butyricum and coccidiosis vaccine on body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio of broilers. Meanwhile, intestinal contents of 8- and 15-day-old broilers were collected, and their intestinal microbiome was characterized by high-throughput sequencing of the V3-V4 region of 16S rDNA. We analyzed the oocysts per gram values and lesion scores in the C. butyricum alone group, in a group challenged with the coccidiosis-causing parasite, Eimeria, and in groups simultaneously challenged Eimeria and pretreated with C. butyricum, the coccidiosis vaccine, or combined C. butyricum and coccidiosis vaccine. Intestinal tissue samples were collected from 32-day-old broilers for microbiome analysis. Our results showed that combination of C. butyricum with coccidiosis vaccine significantly improved the performance of broiler chickens and also significantly reduced the oocysts per gram value and intestinal lesions caused by Eimeria sp. infection. Furthermore, C. butyricum and coccidiosis vaccine administered alone or in combination significantly increased the relative abundance of the immune biomarker genus Barnesiella. The significant increase in the abundance of the Clostridia_UCG.014, Eubacterium coprostanoligenes group and Bacteroides was a key factor in controlling Eimeria sp. infection.

PMID:35547128 | PMC:PMC9083122 | DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2022.811428

Lancet Microbe. 2022 May;3(5):e332. doi: 10.1016/S2666-5247(22)00031-3. Epub 2022 Feb 23.


PMID:35544092 | DOI:10.1016/S2666-5247(22)00031-3

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