Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Sep 9;23(18):10429. doi: 10.3390/ijms231810429.
Avian astroviruses, including chicken astrovirus (CAstV), avian nephritisvirus (ANV), and goose astrovirus (GoAstV), are ubiquitous enteric RNA viruses associated with enteric disorders in avian species. Recent research has found that infection of these astroviruses usually cause visceral gout in chicken, duckling and gosling. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In the current article, we review recent discoveries of genetic diversity and variation of these astroviruses, as well as pathogenesis after astrovirus infection. In addition, we discuss the relation between avian astrovirus infection and visceral gout in poultry. Our aim is to review recent discoveries about the prevention and control of the consequential visceral gout diseases in poultry, along with the attempt to reveal the possible producing process of visceral gout diseases in poultry.
Infect Genet Evol. 2022 Sep 14:105366. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2022.105366. Online ahead of print.
In recent years, fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) continue to outbreak and cause huge economic losses to the poultry industry in China. The homologous recombination accounts for the diversity serotypes of adenovirus. However, the prevalence, recombination and pathogenicity of current FAdVs remain unclear. Herein, the prevalence, phylogenetic feature and pathogenicity of FAdVs in China in 2019 were characterized. Our findings showed that multiple species and serotypes of FAdVs currently circulate in China, including A, C, D and E species, and 1, 2, 4, 8a and 8b serotypes. Notably, the recombination occurred between FAdV-8a and FAdV-8b, and the recombination regions included Hexon, Fiber, ORF19 and ORF20. All five FAdVs replicated effectively in various chicken tissues, and viral shedding peaked at 4-8 dpi. Except CH/GDSZ/1905(FAdV-1/A), the remaining FAdVs caused obvious inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) in 3-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, of which CH/JSXZ/1905(FAdV-4/C) caused hydropericardium-hepatitis syndrome (HHS) with a mortality rate of 62.5%. Taken together, our findings illustrate the prevalence, recombination and pathogenicity of current FAdVs in China and strengthen surveillance and further pathogenicity studies of FAdVs are extremely urgent.
Front Microbiol. 2022 Aug 25;13:977405. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.977405. eCollection 2022.
The increasing prevalence and transmission of tick-borne diseases, especially those emerging ones, have posed a significant threat to public health. Thus, the discovery of neglected pathogenic agents carried and transmitted by ticks is urgently needed. Using unbiased high-throughput sequencing, a novel Orthonairovirus designated as Meihua Mountain virus (MHMV), was identified in bloodsucking ticks collected from cattle and wild boars in Fujian province, Southeastern China. The full-length genome was determined by RT-PCR and RACE. Genomic architecture of MHMV shares typical features with orthonairoviruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that MHMV is clustered into the Nairobi sheep disease (NSD) genogroup of the genus Orthonairovirus and is closely related to the Hazara virus. The RdRp, GPC, and N protein of MHMV shares 62.3%-83.5%, 37.1%-66.1%, and 53.4%-77.3% amino acid identity with other NSD genogroup viruses, respectively, representing a novel species. The overall pooled prevalence of MHMV in ticks was 2.53% (95% CI: 1.62%-3.73%, 22 positives of 134 tick pools), with 7.38% (95% CI: 3.84%-12.59%, 11 positives of 18 pools) in Haemaphysalis hystricis, 6.02% (95% CI: 1.85%-14.22%, four positives of eight pools) in H. formosensis, 25.03% (95% CI: 9.23%-54.59%, six positive of eight pools) in Dermacentor taiwanensis, and 0.16% (95% CI: 0.01%-0.72%, one positive of 100 pools) in Rhipicephalus microplus. This study presented the first report of tick-carried Orthonairovirus in Fujian province and highlighted the broad geographic distribution and high genetic diversity of orthonairoviruses in China.
Poult Sci. 2022 Aug 1;101(11):102091. doi: 10.1016/j.psj.2022.102091. Online ahead of print.
Avian coccidiosis is the most serious parasitic disease in the poultry industry. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to explore the effects of B. subtilis and live coccidiosis vaccine alone or in combination on the production performance and anticoccidiosis, as well as the dynamic changes of intestinal microbial community. Nine hundred ninty Mahuang chickens were randomized into 4 preimmune groups including control group, coccidiosis vaccine immunization group; B. subtilis administration group and a group that was administrated a combination of live coccidiosis vaccine and B. subtilis group. Intestinal mucosal scraps collected from all these experimental groups at the age of 8 d and 15 d for microbial community 16S rRNA gene sequencing. At the age of 25 d, 30 broilers from each preimmune group were randomly assigned to a subgroup infected with Eimeria spp. and renamed as CI, V-CI BS-CI, and VBS-CI group. The production performance was monitored at the age of 25 d, 35 d, 45 d, and 55 d for the rest broilers from each pre-immune group. Otherwise, in the Eimeria spp. challenge stage, intestinal mucosal scraps collected for microbial community sequencing, while duodenum, jejunum, and cecum collected for pathological examination after sacrifice at the age of 32 d. In addition, the oocysts per gram of feces (OPG) and intestinal lesion score of broilers after Eimeria spp. challenge were also counted. Overall, the probiotics and coccidiosis vaccine resulted in the significantly improvement of the production performance. Otherwise, the intestinal lesion score and OPG after Eimeria spp. infection was significantly decreased in the VBS-CI group (P < 0.05). Moreover, these protective effects may also be closely related to genus such as Romboutsia, Blautia, and Butyricococcus, as well as microbiota functions like the quorum sensing pathway. According to these results, a combination of B. subtilis and coccidiosis vaccines can improve performance and provide additional protection against Eimeria spp. infection.
Parasitol Res. 2022 Sep 9. doi: 10.1007/s00436-022-07640-2. Online ahead of print.
Pigeon farming for meat has developed into an important economic industry in most countries, especially in China. Trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, is a worldwide disease in pigeons. However, studies of the prevalence and distribution of T. gallinae lineages in domestic pigeons in southern China are limited. In this study, a total of 636 pigeon throat swabs samples from four regions in Guangdong Province were screened for T. gallinae by in vitro culture assays and microscopy. The results revealed an overall prevalence of T. gallinae infection in southern China of 26.6% (169/636). There were significant differences in the infection rate of T. gallinae between the four regions (χ2 = 117.948, df = 4, P = 0.000), with up to 44.6% in the Pearl River Delta region. The infection rate of young pigeons was as high as 70.8%. The rDNA sequences (18S rRNA/ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2) of 153 positive samples were amplified and sequenced. Results identified 58.2% (89/153) overall as ITS-A (18S-VI) (also known as ITS-OBT-Tg-1) and 41.8% (64/153) as ITS-B (18S-IV) (also known as ITS-OBT-Tg-2). Thus, ITS-A (18S-VI) was the dominant T. gallinae genotype in southern China, especially in young pigeon (97.0%, 32/33). In conclusion, a high prevalence of T. gallinae infection in domestic pigeons was identified in southern China, particularly in the Pearl River Delta region. The ITS-A (18S-VI) was the dominant genotype highly pathogenic, which may weaken the immune system of pigeons, and cause a negative impact on the development of the pigeon industry in China.
Front Vet Sci. 2022 Aug 15;9:951554. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2022.951554. eCollection 2022.
Since 2015, fowl adenovirus (FAdV) has been frequently reported worldwide, causing serious economic losses to the poultry industry. In this study, a FAdV-2, namely GX01, was isolated from liver samples of chickens with hepatitis and hydropericardium in Guangxi Province, China. The complete genome sequence of GX01 was determined about 43,663 base pairs (bp) with 53% G+C content. To our knowledge, this is the first FAdV-2 complete genome in China. There was a deleting fragment in ORF25 gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on the hexon loop-1 gene showed that GX01 is most closely related to FAdV-2 strain 685. Pathogenicity experiment of GX01 in 3-day-old and 10-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens showed that although no mortality was observed within 21 days post infection (dpi), strain GX01 significantly inhibited weight gain of infected chickens. Moreover, FAdV-2 was still detectable in the anal swabs of infected chickens at 21 dpi. Necropsy analysis showed that the main lesions were observed in liver, heart, and spleen. Of note, hepatitis and hydropericardium were observed in the infected chickens. In addition, massive necrosis of lymphocyte was observed in spleen of infected 3-days-old chickens. We concluded that FAdV-2 strain GX01 is capable of causing hepatitis and hydropericardium, which will make serious impact on the growth of chickens. Our research lays a foundation to investigate the molecular epidemiology and etiology of FAdV.
Biomed Res Int. 2022 Aug 28;2022:1635373. doi: 10.1155/2022/1635373. eCollection 2022.
In recent years, an infection in geese caused by goose astrovirus (GAstV) has repeatedly occurred in coastal areas of China and rapidly spread to inland provinces. The infection is characterized by joint and visceral gout and is fatal. The disease has caused huge economic losses to China's goose industry. GAstV is a nonenveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus. As it is a novel virus, there is no specific classification. Here, we review the current understanding of GAstV. The virus structure, isolation, diagnosis and detection, innate immune regulation, and transmission route are discussed. In addition, since GAstV can cause gout in goslings, the possible role of GAstV in gout formation and uric acid metabolism is discussed. We hope that this review will inform researchers to rapidly develop effective methods to prevent and treat this disease.
Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist. 2022 Aug 5;20:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpddr.2022.07.002. Online ahead of print.
Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) is a protozoal parasite that can cause severe cecal lesions and death in chickens, seriously harming the chicken industry. Conventional control strategies mainly rely on anticoccidial drugs. However, the emerging problems of anticoccidial resistance and drug residues necessitate exploring potential drug targets for developing new anticoccidial drugs. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD) is an essential enzyme for parasite energy metabolism that has been considered a potential drug target. In this study, we analyzed the molecular and biochemical properties of E. tenella ALD2 (EtALD2). EtALD2 mRNA expression was highest in second-generation merozoites, whereas the protein level was highest in unsporulated oocysts. Indirect immunofluorescence showed that EtALD2 was mainly distributed in sporozoite' cytoplasm. The natural product inhibitor (morin) was screened by computer-aided drug screening. Enzyme kinetic and inhibition kinetic assays showed that morin had a good inhibitory effect on EtALD2 activity (IC50 = 10.37 μM, Ki = 48.97 μM). In vitro inhibition assay demonstrated that morin had an inhibitory effect on E. tenella development, with an IC50 value of 3.98 μM and drug selection index of 177.49. In vivo, morin significantly improved cecal lesions (p < 0.05) and reduced oocyst excretion (p < 0.05) in E. tenella-infected chickens compared with the untreated group. The anticoccidial index of the group receiving 450 mg morin per kg feed was 162, showing a good anticoccidial effect. These findings suggest that EtALD2 could be a novel drug target for E. tenella treatment, and morin should be further evaluated as a therapeutic candidate for chicken coccidiosis.
Front Microbiol. 2022 Jul 19;13:862205. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.862205. eCollection 2022.
Human infection with highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus causes severe respiratory diseases. Currently, the drugs against H5N1 are limited to virus-targeted inhibitors. However, drug resistance caused by these inhibitors is becoming a serious threat to global public health. An alternative strategy to reduce the resistance risk is to develop antiviral drugs targeting host cell proteins. In this study, we demonstrated that cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 1 (COX41) of host cell plays an important role in H5N1 infection. Overexpression of COX41 promoted viral replication, which was inhibited by silencing or knockout the expression of COX41 in the host cell. The ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) of H5N1 were retained in the cell nucleus after knockout cellular COX41. Strikingly, inhibition of cellular COX41 by lycorine, a small-molecule compound isolated from Amaryllidaceae plants, reduced the levels of COX41-induced ROS and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in cells, thus resulting in the blockage of nuclear export of vRNP and inhibition of viral replication. In H5N1-infected mice that were treated with lycorine, we observed a reduction of viral titers and inhibition of pathological changes in the lung and trachea tissues. Importantly, no resistant virus was generated after culturing the virus with the continuous treatment of lycorine. Collectively, these findings suggest that COX41 is a positive regulator of H5N1 replication and might serve as an alternative target for anti-influenza drug development.