BMC Vet Res. 2023 Sep 21;19(1):169. doi: 10.1186/s12917-023-03683-4.


BACKGROUND: Parvoviruses are icosahedral, nonenveloped viruses with single-stranded DNA genomes of approximately 5 kb in length. In recent years, parvoviruses have frequently mutated and expanded their host range to cause disease in many wild animals by altering their tissue tropism. Animal infection mainly results in acute enteritis and inflammation of other organs. In this study, we used a viral metagenomic method to detect a novel parvovirus species in a red-crowned crane that died due to severe diarrhea in China.

RESULTS: The presence of the viral genome in the kidney, lung, heart, liver, and intestine were confirmed by PCR. Histopathological examination of the intestine showed a large number of infiltrated inflammatory cells. The JL21/10 strain of the red-crowned crane parvovirus was first isolated from the intestine. Whole-genome sequence analysis showed that JL21/10 shared high identity with the red-crowned crane Parvovirinae strains yc-8 at the nucleotide level (96.61%). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome and NS1 gene revealed that the JL21/10 strain clustered with strains in chicken and revealed a close genetic relationship with the red-crowned crane parvovirus strains.The complete of VP2 gene analysis showed that JL21/10 shared identity with the red-crowned crane yc-8 strains (97.7%), chicken (55.4%),ducks(31.0%) and geese(30.1%) at the amino acid level. The result showed that red-crowned crane parvovirus may be cross-species transmission to chicken. However, There is little possibility of transmission to ducks and geese.

CONCLUSION: This is the first isolation and identification of a parvovirus in red-crowned crane that was associated with severe diarrhea.

PMID:37735392 | PMC:PMC10512598 | DOI:10.1186/s12917-023-03683-4

J Virol Methods. 2023 Sep 16:114813. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2023.114813. Online ahead of print.


Newcastle disease (ND) caused by virulent avian paramyxovirus type I (APMV-1) is a WOAH and EU listed disease affecting poultry worldwide. ND exhibits different clinical manifestations that may either be neurological, respiratory and/or gastrointestinal, accompanied by high mortality. In contrast, mild or subclinical forms are generally caused by lentogenic APMV-1 and are not subject to notification. The rapid discrimination of virulent and avirulent viruses is paramount to limit the spread of virulent APMV-1. The appropriateness of molecular methods for APMV-1 pathotyping is often hampered by the high genetic variability of these viruses that affects sensitivity and inclusivity. This work presents a new array of real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assays that enable the identification of virulent and avirulent viruses in dual mode, i.e., through pathotype-specific probes and subsequent Sanger sequencing of the amplification product. Validation was performed according to the WOAH recommendations. Performance indicators on sensitivity, specificity, repeatability and reproducibility yielded favourable results. Reproducibility highlighted the need for assays optimization whenever major changes are made to the procedure. Overall, the new RT-qPCRs showed its ability to detect and pathotype all tested APMV-1 genotypes and its suitability for routine use in clinical samples.

PMID:37722509 | DOI:10.1016/j.jviromet.2023.114813

Parasit Vectors. 2023 Jul 27;16(1):253. doi: 10.1186/s13071-023-05855-5.


BACKGROUND: Coccidiosis, a prominent intestinal protozoan disease, carries significant economic implications for the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Fengqiang Shengtai (BLES), a probiotics product, and coccidiosis vaccine in modulating the intestinal microbiome and providing insight into mitigating the occurrence and management of avian coccidiosis.

METHODS: Broilers included in the study were divided into four pre-treatment groups: the Pre-Con group (commercial diet), Pre-BLES group (BLES supplement), Pre-Vac group (coccidiosis vaccination) and Pre-Vac-BLES group (combined vaccination and BLES). Body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were monitored from age 25 to 55 days. Cecum contents were collected at 8 and 15 days of age for comparative analysis of intestinal microbiomes. In the Pre-BLES and Pre-Vac-BLES groups, probiotics were administered at a dose of 0.01 g per chicken between ages 3 to 6 days and 10-13 days. At 3 days of age, chickens in the Pre-Vac and Pre-Vac-BLES groups were vaccinated with 1700 sporulated oocysts of the live coccidiosis vaccine per chicken. At the age of 25 days, Eimeria spp. challenge experiments were performed based on the aforementioned immunization strategy, and the oocysts per gram (OPG) in the feces, intestinal lesion score and intestinal pathological characteristics were evaluated. Specifically, 30 chickens were randomly selected from each group and orally administered 34,000 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria spp. per chicken, re-defined as Eimeria group, BLES-Eimeria group, Vac-Eimeria group and Vac-BLES-Eimeria group, respectively. Additionally, 30 chickens were randomly selected from the Pre-Con group and included as negative control without Eimeria spp.

CHALLENGE: Intestinal microbiota was sequenced and analyzed when the broilers were 32 days old.

RESULTS: A significant improvement was observed in body weight gain of the broilers in the Pre-BLES and Pre-Vac-BLES group at 45 days of age. Analysis of the intestinal microbiota revealed a positive correlation between the experimental groups receiving BLES and coccidiosis vaccines at 8 and 15 days of age with the Enterococcus genus and Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group, respectively. In addition to the reduced lesion score and OPG values, the combination of coccidiosis vaccine and BLES also reduced the intestinal epithelial abscission induced by coccidiosis vaccines. The results of intestinal microbial function prediction demonstrated that N-glycan biosynthesis and ferroptosis were the prominent signal pathways in the Vac-BLES-Eimeria group.

CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that supplementation of BLES with coccidiosis vaccine represents a promising strategy for improving growth performance, alleviating clinical manifestations and inducing favorable alterations to the intestinal microbiota in broiler chickens affected by coccidiosis.

PMID:37501177 | PMC:PMC10375739 | DOI:10.1186/s13071-023-05855-5

J Infect. 2023 Sep;87(3):277-279. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2023.07.003. Epub 2023 Jul 11.


PMID:37442374 | DOI:10.1016/j.jinf.2023.07.003

Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2023 Jun 26;13:1219506. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2023.1219506. eCollection 2023.


PMID:37434781 | PMC:PMC10332148 | DOI:10.3389/fcimb.2023.1219506

Viruses. 2023 May 28;15(6):1263. doi: 10.3390/v15061263.


Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) is an infectious viral disease caused by epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and EHDV frequently circulates in wild and domestic ruminants. Sporadic outbreaks of EHD have caused thousands of deaths and stillbirths on cattle farms. However, not much is known about the circulating status of EHDV in Guangdong, southern China. To estimate the seroprevalence of EHDV in Guangdong province, 2886 cattle serum samples were collected from 2013 to 2017 and tested for antibodies against EHDV using a competitive ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of EHDV reached 57.87% and was highest in autumn (75.34%). A subset of positive samples were serotyped by a serum neutralization test, showing that EHDV serotypes 1 and 5-8 were circulating in Guangdong. In addition, EHDV prevalence always peaked in autumn, while eastern Guangdong had the highest EHDV seropositivity over the five-year period, displaying apparent temporal-spatial distribution of EHDV prevalence. A binary logistic model analysis indicated a significant association between cattle with BTV infections and seroprevalence of EHDV (OR = 1.70, p < 0.001). The co-infection of different serotypes of EHDV and BTV raises a high risk of potential genomic reassortment and is likely to pose a significant threat to cattle, thus urging more surveillance to monitor their circulating dynamics in China.

PMID:37376563 | PMC:PMC10303234 | DOI:10.3390/v15061263

J Med Virol. 2023 May;95(5):e28744. doi: 10.1002/jmv.28744.


PMID:37212297 | DOI:10.1002/jmv.28744

Lab Anim Res. 2023 May 9;39(1):8. doi: 10.1186/s42826-023-00157-4.


BACKGROUND: The Omicron variant has become the most prevalent SARS-CoV-2 variant. Omicron is known to induce milder lesions compared to the original Wuhan strain. Fatal infection of the Wuhan strain into the brain has been well documented in COVID-19 mouse models and human COVID-19 cases, but apparent infections into the brain by Omicron have not been reported in human adult cases or animal models. In this study, we investigated whether Omicron could spread to the brain using K18-hACE2 mice susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

RESULTS: K18-hACE2 mice were intranasally infected with 1 × 105 PFU of the original Wuhan strain and the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2. A follow-up was conducted 7 days post infection. All Wuhan-infected mice showed > 20% body weight loss, defined as the lethal condition, whereas two out of five Omicron-infected mice (40%) lost > 20% body weight. Histopathological analysis based on H&E staining revealed inflammatory responses in the brains of these two Omicron-infected mice. Immunostaining analysis of viral nucleocapsid protein revealed severe infection of neuron cells in the brains of these two Omicron-infected mice. Lymphoid depletion and apoptosis were observed in the spleen of Omicron-infected mice with brain infection.

CONCLUSION: Lethal conditions, such as severe body weight loss and encephalopathy, can occur in Omicron-infected K18-hACE2 mice. Our study reports, for the first time, that Omicron can induce brain infection with lymphoid depletion in the mouse COVID-19 model.

PMID:37161442 | PMC:PMC10169124 | DOI:10.1186/s42826-023-00157-4

Front Vet Sci. 2023 Mar 24;10:1152802. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2023.1152802. eCollection 2023.


In 2020, a chicken-origin Cluster 3 Tembusu virus (TMUV) caused outbreaks of a disease characterized by egg-drop syndrome in laying hens in China. In the present study, a TMUV strain, TMUV-GX, was isolated from tissue samples of laying hens with egg drop syndrome in south China. Phylogenetic analysis grouped TMUV-GX into TMUV Cluster 3.2, which was distinct from the prevalent TMUV Cluster 2 in duck flocks. To study the infectivity and pathogenicity of TMUV-GX in chickens and ducks, 7 day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks and SPF ducklings were infected with the same dose of the TMUV-GX. As a comparison, the duck-origin Cluster 2 strain, TMUV-JM, infection groups were set up in chicks and ducklings. Compared with the low infectivity and pathogenicity of TMUV-JM in chicks, the chicken-origin TMUV-GX displayed high replication competence in multiple tissues and caused tissues histopathological damage. In addition, the replication competence of TMUV-GX in ducklings was comparable to that of TMUV-JM. Our study revealed chicken-origin Cluster 3.2 TMUV exhibits high infectivity in chicks and ducklings, and suggested that chicken-origin Cluster 3.2 TMUV possesses a biological basis for widespread infection of chickens and ducks.

PMID:37035806 | PMC:PMC10080150 | DOI:10.3389/fvets.2023.1152802

Vaccines (Basel). 2023 Mar 22;11(3):708. doi: 10.3390/vaccines11030708.


Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) are among the most impactful pathogens affecting the turkey industry. Since turkeys are routinely immunized against both diseases, the hatchery administration of the combined respective live vaccines would offer remarkable practical advantages. However, the compatibility of NDV and aMPV vaccines has not yet been experimentally demonstrated in this species. To address this issue, an aMPV subtype B live vaccine was administered to day-old poults either alone or in combination with one of two different ND vaccines. The birds were then challenged with a virulent aMPV subtype B strain, clinical signs were recorded and aMPV and NDV vaccine replication and humoral immune response were assessed. All results supported the absence of any interference hampering protection against aMPV, with no significant differences in terms of clinical scoring. In addition, the mean aMPV vaccine viral titers and antibody titers measured in the dual vaccinated groups were comparable or even higher than in the group vaccinated solely against aMPV. Lastly, based on the NDV viral and antibody titers, the combined aMPV and NDV vaccination does not seem to interfere with protection against NDV, although further studies involving an actual ND challenge will be necessary to fully demonstrate this hypothesis.

PMID:36992292 | PMC:PMC10053581 | DOI:10.3390/vaccines11030708

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